A paradigm shift means that an idea comes along that is based on assumptions that are so drastically different that they make no sense to leading scientists. The new approach leads to a worldview that the leaders in science denounce as garbage, not even worth thinking about. Because the major advances in science come via paradigm shifts, therefore scientists must always be uneasy because some crackpot theory or other may turn out to be true, and be the key to the future. Franco Selleri, an Italian physicist who is one of the founders of Elementary Wave Theory, says that in science the mainstream orthodoxy is usually wrong.
Here are some examples: The dominant system of astronomy was published by Claudius Ptolemy in 100 AD. The sun, planets and stars revolved around the earth in cycles and epicycles. Ptolemaic science prevailed for fourteen centuries. One of the students of that science was Nicolaus Copernicus who published a book in 1543, which said the math was simpler if you assumed that the sun was the center, not the earth. His view was considered so absurd that less than a dozen people heard of it for the next century. From the viewpoint of the leaders of science, Copernicus had produced such garbage that it did not warrant thinking about. Galileo invented the telescope in 1609 and it was Galileo who promoted the radical idea that Copernicus was correct.
Alfred Wegner proposed in 1912 that all the continents had previously been joined in one super-continent, for which he coined the name “Pangea.” Not only do today’s continents fit together like a jigsaw puzzle, but also the record of fossils fit together, as shown in this diagram. His idea of continents drifting apart was completely rejected by all leaders of science and rejected by geological scholarly societies as garbage not even worth thinking about. Even his father in law denounced Wegener’s stupid idea. Many decades later it was discovered that the sea floor was not flat, but
the Atlantic had a mountain range down the middle, consistent with the idea of sea floor spreading. Thus plate tectonics was born. Wegener was the founding father of plate tectonics, which is the foundation upon which all geology is based today.
In 1996 Thomas Kuhn published a book about scientific revolutions, showing that paradigm shifts involve such a drastic change of starting assumptions that the leading scientists find it incomprehensible garbage and say it is not even worth thinking about.
One of the paradoxes of the 21st century is that leaders in quantum physics all agree there is something fundamentally wrong with quantum mechanics, nevertheless they are not open to Elementary Wave theory (EWT) as a way to fix it. If you ask the leaders of science today about EWT they will tell you that it is garbage, not even worth thinking about. If you persist they will flunk you as a student, deny you tenure, and you will become a pariah.